Our Earth has seen a lot of brave commanders who have left incredible marks on the face of history. Especially Muslim history is full of these courageous men. The commanders like Muhammad bin Qasim, Tariq Bin Ziyad, Qatiba Bin Muslim, and a lot of others have written their names among the best Commandos of the world. Many of them are well known to every person in the world, whether he is a Muslim or a non-Muslim. But there are some persons about whom the history has told very little.
Who was Sultan Baibars?
His full name was Al Malik Al Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari. He was the 4th Sultan of the Mamluk Bahri Dynasty in Egypt after Qutuz. The Forces of Egypt who won the 7th Crusade war of French King Louis IX, Baibars, was one commander of that Army. Baibars was the leader of the Egyptian Army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. In this battle, the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army was I consider this a turning point in the history of humanity.
Their enemies surrounded the Muslims from all around. On one side, there were Mongols who were spreading like black thunder, while on the other hand, the crusaders were at war with them since ever. The Mongols had destroyed every state in their way; the Mongols had ruined bitterly even their capital of the Caliphate. It looked like there will be no end of their cruelty and power. But then, just out of nothing, the incident took place, which changed the direction of history. Mongols were defeated comprehensively for the first time. It was the wisdom and bravery along with the Martial techniques of the great Sultan Baibars that ruined the Mongols from this part of the Earth.
The Mongol Storm:
Mongols had conquered significant parts of the Islamic world. After the conquest of Transoxiana, they reached to Iran, Afghanistan, and the subcontinent. After capturing these regions, they arrived near Egypt. Egyptian state was the last hurdle before they could reach to the most sacred places of Islam, Makkah, and Madina. These holy places were also at risk along with other Islamic states as the Mongol forces had already ruined the two great Islamic Empires. The Khwarizmi State was the last rock to the castles of Baghdad. The Muslims of these two States could not be united, and the Mongols destroyed these so badly as if they were never there on the face of the Earth.
Hulagu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, along with his locusts, swarm-like forces off over three lac, conquered the states of Iraq, Syria, and Palestine and reached the gate of Egypt. His Army sent their camps in “Ain Jaloot” in 1260 AD. It was just a substance of period because both the forces were standing in front of each other. On the one hand, there were Mongols who were over 300,000 in number, while there were Mamluks of Egypt who were only twenty thousand in numbers. Without a doubt, it was a nothing comparison. We should note that the Mongols were always more fabulous, but this time there was no comparison at all. But then, there came the man who made it possible. Mamluk Sultan Qutuz was busy in making his strategies to cope with this situation when suddenly, nature provided him a golden chance.
A miracle just happened, and Hulagu Khan had to go back to his native place. Their 4th Kākān had died, and all the princes were to go back to take part in the tribal Qrultai. He left for Mongolia, leaving behind his assistant Katabgha Khan with twenty thousand men. It is said that when Baibars heard the news of Mongols barbarism, he said that if the Mongols would come to Egypt, then he will face them and tell them they were not the only brave men on Earth. Now, when most Mongol forces had gone back to their land. Now the Baibars tested his arms. He made the same strategy as the mangoes had been building since long to destroy the enemy.
He just a narrow pathway and set his troops on both sides of that pathway. Hulagu Khan had advised his men not to attack the enemy, but now the mamluks themselves had attacked them. Both the forces were almost the same in numbers, but Mongols had the upper hand. Baibars, just after the start of the battle, retreated as if they had defeated him. It was a pre-planned war strategy, but the Mongols could not understand it and followed the Mamluk Army blindly. When the Mongol Army reached inside that narrow pathway, the hidden troops of the Mamluk Army attacked them from behind and started killing them like soft soap. The Mongols were being crushed from both sides. Soon there was no soldier from the Mongol Army left. The Mamluk forces had killed or captured all the soldiers.
Effects of the Defeat:
Mongols had never faced such a situation before. This defeat meant a lot to them. This victory of the Mamluks was also significant for the Muslim States. The news of this defeat spread like a fire of the Jungle. The Muslims set a rebellion against the Mongols everywhere. As a result, a vast area of Syria and Palestine got freedom from the Mongols.
Consequently, the Mongol Storm vanished in 1260 AD in the field of Ain Jaloot after drinking the Muslim blood for 40 years. Commander Baibars is undoubtedly the Hero of this battle. Although, after this, the Mongols attacked the many Muslim States, the concept of them being undefeatable had gone now. Therefore, they had to face a lot of resistance afterward.
On the broader Aspect:
This was just the beginning of their decline. After this battle, the Mongols had to face a lot of problems and resistance in every part of the world. Soon they were divided into two parts when Barki Khan, one grandson of Genghis Khan, embraced Islam before a Sufi Muslim Shaikh Saifuddin in Bukhara. Hulagu Khan had attacked Baibars, who was the Egyptian King now, but destiny had something else for him. Before Hulagu Khan could leave for Egypt, Barki Khan reached there with his troops and attacked his X-companion. The two forces fought bravely, but Barki Khan had the last laugh. Hulagu Khan, who had killed millions of Muslims, was dead.
Credits on Sultan’s Name:
Sultan Baibars has so many credits on his account. He defeated the Mongols, which was considered an impossible task. No one had thought a minor force of twenty thousand soldiers would turn the face of history. He also defeated the crusaders in the last Crusade war in 1270. He conquered all the areas of Iraq, Syria, and Palestine. After this defeat, the crusaders could never attack Muslims. This was the end of the Crusade Wars. As a result, we can call Sultan Baibars also the Hero of these wars. It means that Sultan Baibars ended the Mongol attack and the Crusade wars both, but unfortunately, only a few Muslims all over the world know their Hero.
Another of his achievements was the revival of Abbasids Caliphate, this time in Egypt. This Caliphate ran for a long time. Later, The Usmani Turks conquered Egypt, and they shifted the Caliphate to Turks. This brave man also had fought many other battles, especially against Hassan Bin Sabah and his troops. This noble son of Islam breathed his last in 1277. He saved Makkah and Madina from Mongols, Al-Quds from French King, and made a revival of Caliphate after the destruction of Baghdad. His name will shine until the end of the world. May his soul rest in peace. Amin!
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